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科技大亨汇聚一堂:Google与Apple的合作

谷歌 LLC和Apple Inc. 宣布 他们将合作战斗 新冠肺炎 通过建立一个“基于蓝牙的COVID联系人追踪平台”使大流行,该平台将在与任何感染冠状病毒的个人接触时通知个人,并且该个人也已在手机上下载了该应用程序。这项合作对于卫生当局在不影响用户隐私的情况下跟踪这种流行病的传播无疑将大有帮助。

CEO of 谷歌, Mr Sundar Pichai has tweeted, “the two companies are committed to working together on these efforts”. Tim Cook, the CEO of Apple also tweeted that this new initiative made by the two companies will respect the consent and transparency of its users. In their 联合声明s the two CEOs have 说过 that “Since 新冠肺炎 can be transmitted through close proximity to affected individuals, public health officials have identified contact tracing as a valuable tool to help contain its spread. A number of leading public health authorities, universities, and NGOs around the world have been doing important work to develop opt-in contact tracing technology. To further this cause, Apple and 谷歌 will be launching a comprehensive solution that includes Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and operating system-level technology to assist in enabling contact tracing. Given the urgent need, the plan is to implement this solution in two steps while maintaining strong protections around user privacy.”

的 two tech giants are currently working on an operating system-level technology and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) in order to assist the health workers and officials in enabling the contact tracing. 的se APIs would help and allow Android and iOS devices to exchange information, and would further notify the health workers to keep track of the spreading of this deadly disease. So, once this feature comes into operation, whenever any two individuals would be near each other (or come in contact with each other), their phones will be exchanging an identification key and the users will get notification whether they have come into contact with any 新冠肺炎 infected person or not. 这个 would enable the users to either self-quarantine or get themselves tested. Also, if the user contracts the 新冠肺炎 virus, he can even notify the other person as well about it. 的 two companies have made sure that the privacy of their users is not breached and therefore, this application will be working without revealing the name of its users or any of their data. 的 person who got contracted with 新冠肺炎 will just be notified that he came in contact with a 新冠肺炎 infected person and nothing else. In fact, the location of the user will also not be traced by the devices.

谷歌 苹果强调他们不会聚集任何人’s exact 对抗小说的方向或坐标(或任何原因的数据) 新冠病毒。而是具有联系跟踪应用程序的小工具可以进行通信 定期向附近的各种小工具发出一种信号, 包括那些接近六英尺的物体,因为 六尺 是疾病中心提供的最小范围 社会隔离的控制和预防。

的 两家科技巨头也在他们的 联合声明 媒体说,“在未来的几个月中,苹果和谷歌 将致力于通过以下方式建立更广泛的基于蓝牙的联系人跟踪平台: 将此功能构建到基础平台中。这是更多 比API更强大的解决方案,如果 他们选择加入,并允许与更广泛的生态系统进行交互 应用程序和政府卫生部门。隐私,透明度和同意 在这项工作中至关重要,我们期待构建此功能 与感兴趣的利益相关者协商。我们将公开发布 有关我们工作的信息,供其他人分析。”

对于苹果和谷歌来说,主要的挑战将是它完全掌握在用户手中,因为该框架是任意的,它取决于个人适当下载和使用该应用程序。为了消除对潜在虐待的担忧,相关用户将需要从任何一般卫生机构那里获得肯定的分析,即他们已经感染了冠状病毒,并附带了例外代码,例如,根据苹果公司的规定,该信号触发了不同的小工具。

这个 倡议将分两个阶段进行。从现在开始的一个月后,Google和 苹果将​​发布其API,允许通过外部人员进行联系人跟踪 健康专家发布的应用程序。两种Android和iOS的用户 小工具可以通过各自的应用程序下载此应用程序 stores.

目前,用户愿意安装并向这些联系跟踪应用程序授予必要的权限,这些应用程序仍由基金会(例如,麻省理工学院的 私人自动联系人跟踪 (PACT). Also, it would be totally dependent upon the person to show on the off chance that they had gotten the infection, bringing about unknown alarms being sent to the individuals who had been in that individual’s contact. Disease transmission specialists and general health officials have as of late focused on Bluetooth innovation as an imperative instrument for human groups looking to follow and stem the pandemic’的发展。设计师说,这将补充人类接触追踪的努力,在此过程中,一般卫生官员将与个人进行交谈,以发现他们已经达到疾病发作时间或与之接触过。

接触追踪蓝牙规范 由Apple和Google共同开发,并且将进一步扩展和修改,因此不会使用其用户位置进行邻近检测,而仅限于蓝牙信标。 滚动接近标识符 of a user keeps on changing every 15 minutes and requires Daily Tracing Key to be related to its users which reduces its users’ risk of privacy loss and it totally depends on its users, to decide whether to contribute to contact tracing or not. 的 server will have the consent of the user to share their Diagnosis key if diagnosed with 新冠肺炎. Rolling Proximity Identifier of a user cannot be correlated without having the Daily Tracing Key. Thus, reducing the risk of privacy loss. A server operator that will be implementing this protocol will not learn who their users have been in contact with or their location until and unless users report their Diagnosis Keys without which it will be difficult for an attacker to search for a collision on Rolling Proximity Identifier. 这个 reporting will only be limited to 24hrs period. After the users have uploaded their Diagnosis Keys, the server must not be retaining any metadata of its users after including them into the aggregated list per day of its Diagnosis Keys.

以下给 图片 苹果公司和Google提出的方案清楚地描绘了他们的想法和该应用程序的工作原理。

罗恩·里维斯特, a famous cryptography expert and a PACT leader has already started some of the difficulties with such applications. It tends to be difficult to gauge go with Bluetooth and its results. Since such results will vary depending upon the manner in which the device is situated, regardless of whether it is tucked inside someone’s pocket or held against someone’s head for a call and the Bluetooth device apart from human beings also senses the walls, windows, and car doors, making it difficult to track the total number of 新冠肺炎 infected persons. Since the device will just be notifying its users that they came in contact with a COVID infected. 珍妮佛·格兰尼克(Jennifer Granick),网络安全顾问和ACLU监控, 说过 个人可能会相信这些框架,以确保他们确保安全,保持审慎并将信息存储在一个人身上’s小工具,不是任何集中式存储库。

隐私 倡导者现在就看到了蓝牙创新的利用,两者都更少 干扰性强,比使用手机进行的其他调查更有价值 随着大流行的扩大,最近出现的区域信息。 用户将拥有接近零的容量来控制信息 应用程序生产商和电话公司收集了有关他们 动作,他们可以关闭设备’蓝牙或拒绝 下载建议的冠状病毒追踪应用程序。

虽然它’跟踪个人是一项艰巨的任务’在一天的持续时间内,’不够精确,无法衡量个人是否保持六英尺的距离。 GPS信息可以帮助我们将精度降低到5至20米左右,而手机信号塔信息仅提供一般的行进方向或个人位置。同样在我们大多数人口没有Android或iOS的国家,对于这些公司和卫生官员来说,追踪此类人员的健康状况将变得非常困难。

目前在印度,Aarogya Setu是与两家公司正在根据他们用来跟踪每个人的运动的方法开发的一款并行应用程序。由于目前没有API,因此无法实现iOS和Android之间的互操作性。但是,一旦这两家科技巨头实施了计划中的功能以抗击这种流行病,对于我们所有人,整个世界,情况可能就会有所不同。

认为该区域信息将帮助政府当局了解个人是否正在遵守社会疏离准则,并提供一个背景,以谁与COVID-19患者进行了接触来加强隔离工作。但是,谷歌和苹果之间的新关系反映出硅谷正在逐渐认识到,主流技术巨头及其创造的大量信息可以在大流行之后得到重新利用。

安查尔

目前正在Symbiosis法学院Noida攻读B.A.LL.B.(2018-23 Batch)。热衷于网络空间和网络安全法以及刑法。总是开放学习新事物并扩展我的知识。在ADJ(巴特那地区法院)工作,在高级公共检察官(CBI,反腐败处)工作,曾是Save the Children India的法律和社会志愿者,还曾在LexLife担任法律研究员和内容撰稿人。 由于我是+2的计算机科学学生,因此我一直与编码有关,因此热衷于学习网站开发,这也是我对网络空间和网络安全法感兴趣的原因。

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